Emla (Arabic Dictation)
- About Hamza (ء)
1.1. Written Alif in the Beginning of Word
The letter Hamza that lay in the beginning of a word, written Alif absolutely, may be hamzah qoth’i (أ) or be hamza washl (ا) , in all haraka (vowel marks) such as fatha (ــَـ) , damma (ــُـ) , atau kasra(ــِـ) .
اِسْمٌ, أَبٌ, أَخٌ, أُخْتٌ, أُمٌّ, إِمَامٌ, أَكْرَم, اِكْرَامٌ, اُسْكُتْ
1.2. Written Alif in the Middle of Word
Hamza (ء) that lay in the middle of a word written alif (أ)in three situations:
- If hamza is signed by sukoon (ءْ) and letter before it has haraka fatha (ــَـ)
رَأْسٌ, كَأْسٌ, بَأْسٌ, رَأْيٌ, طُمَأْنِيْنَةٌ, يَأْمُرُ, مَأْرَبٌ, فَأْتِ
- If hamza has haraka fatha(ــَـ) and letter before it has haraka fatha too (ــَـ).
اِتَّأَدَ, يَتَأَخَّرُ, مُتَأَمِّلٌ.
- If hamza has haraka fatha(ــَـ) and letter before it signed by sukoon (ـــــْــــ) .
مَرْأَةٌ, مَسْأَلَةٌ, يَسْأَلُ, يَنْأَى
1.3. Written Waw in the Middle of Word.
Hamza that lay in the middle of word written Waw (ؤ)in five conditions:
- If Hamza is signed by sukoon (ؤْ)and letter before it has haraka damma (ــُـ) .
لُؤْمٌ, رُؤْيَةٌ, سُؤْرٌ
- If Hamza has haraka fatha (ؤَ)and letter before it has haraka damma (ــُـ) .
سُؤَالٌ, رُؤَالٌ, مُؤَامَرَةٌ
- If Hamza has haraka damma ( ؤُ)and letter before it signed by sukoon (ــــْـــ)
التَضَاؤُلُ, التَثَاؤُبُ, التَشَاؤُمُ
- If hamza has haraka damma ( ؤُ) and letter before it has haraka fatha, and no letter layeen (letter waw or ya signed by sukoon) before and after it or letter of mad (long vowel).
- If Hamza has haraka damma ( ؤُ) and leter before it has haraka damma (ــُـ) .
1.4. Written Ya in the Middle of Word
Hamza that lays in the middle of word written Ya (ئ)in seven conditions:
- If Hamza has haraka damma (ئُ) and letter before it has haraka kasra (ــِـ) .
- If Hamza has haraka fatha ( ئَ) and letter before it has haraka kasra (ــِـ) .
- If Hamza is signed by sukoon (ئْ)and letter before it has haraka kasra. (ــِـ)
بِئْرٌ, بِئْسَ, ذِئْبٌ
- If Hamza has haraka kasra (ئِ) and letter before it has haraka kasra (ــِـ).
مِئِيْنَ, فِئِيْنَ, اِبْطِئِي
- If Hamza has haraka kasra ( ئِ)and letter before it has haraka damma.(ـــــُـــ)
سُئِلَ, دُئِلَ, رُئِيَ
- If Hamza has haraka kasra ( ئِ)and letter before it has haraka fatha (ــَـ)
- If Hamza has haraka kasra ( ئِ)and letter before it signed by sukoon (ــــْـــ)
أَسْئِلَةٌ, مَسَائِل, أَفْئِدَةٌ, وُضُوْئِي, ضَوْئِي
1.5. Written Unaccompanied
Hamzah that lays in the middle of word written alone in two conditions:
- If Hamza has haraka fatha (ءَ)and letter before it is letter of mad (long vowel)
(ا- و – ي) or letter of layeen (letter waw or ya that signed by sukoon)
- If leter after Hamza is letter of mad (long vowel) (ا- و – ي)
مَرْءُوْسٌ, رُءُوْسٌ, رَءُوْفٌ
1.6. Hamza in the End of Word
Hamza in the end of word in four conditions:
- Written Alif (أ) if letter before it has haraka fatha (ــــَــــ)
قَرَأَ, مَلْجَأٌ, مُهَيّأٌ
- Written Waw (ؤ) if letter before it has haraka damma.(ــــــُــــ)
لُؤْلُؤٌ, التَوَاطُؤُ, وَضُؤَ
- Written Ya(ئ) if letter before it has haraka kasra.(ــــــِــــ)
مُنْشِئٌ, قَارِئٌ, مُبْتَدِئٌ
- Written unaccompanied(ء) in conditions:
First, If letter before it signed by sukoon.(ـــــْــــ)
مِلْءٌ, صَفَاءٌ, مَجِيْءٌ
Second, If letter before it is letter Waw signed by tashdeed (double consonants) and has haraka damma.(وُّ)
- Every Hamza has haraka damma (ءُ) , letter before it has haraka fatha (ــــَــــ) or damma (ــــُــــ) , and letter after it is Waw that signed by sukoon (وْ) , then written unaccompanied. The exception: ten words are written that don’t follow Emla rules.
رُءُوْسٌ, يَبْدَءُوْنَ, اِقْرَءُوْا
Ten words are:
سؤول, شؤون, صؤون, فئول, لؤوم, نؤوم, يؤوب, بؤوس, يؤول, قؤود
- Every Hamza has haraka fatha (ــــَـــ)and letter after it is letter of mad with same vowel, then it is removed.
مِرْآةٌ, قُرْآنٌ, رَآسَةٌ
Except Alif Ithnine (Alif that indicates amount of two), then Hamza is written.
قَرَأَا, بَدَأَا, لَمْ يَقْرَأَا, يَقْرَأَانِ
Except if letter before it is ALif, then written unaccompanied.
- If letter after Hamza is Alif Mothanna (Alif that indicates amount of two), then there are four condition:
c.1. If letter before Hamza is signed by sukoon and can not be connected with Hamza, then written unaccompanied (ء) .
قُرْءَانِ (مُثَنَّى من قُرْءٍ)
c.2. If letter before Hamza is signed by sukoon and can be connected by Hamza, then Hamza is written with Ya (ئ) .
c.3. If leter before Hamza has haraka Kasra (ـــِــــ)or damma (ــــُـــ) , then Hamza is written depend on haraka of letter before. If it has haraka kasra, written with Ya (ئ) , if it has haraka damma, written with Waw (ؤ) .
c.4. If letter before Hamza has haraka fatha (ـــــَــ), then Hamza is changed to mad (long vowel).
- Every Hamza has haraka kasra and letter after it letter of mad (long vowel) of one type, can be written unaccompanied (ء) , or written with Ya (ئ) .
اِسْرَاءِيْلُ, جِبْرَاءِيْلُ/جِبْرَائِيْلُ, رَءِيْسٌ / رَئِيْسٌ
- Every Hamza that lays in front of word, and letter after it is Hamza that signed by sukoon, the first Hamza has haraka kasra and damma, then written as same as spoken.
Except first hamza has haraka fatha and second hamza is signed by sukoon, then written mad (long vowel).
If hamza that lay in front of word has haraka damma and kasra, then meet hamza thaht signed by sukoon, and started with waw (و)or fa’ (ف) then Hamza Washl is removed and hamza is written with Alif.
وَأْمُرْ , فَأْذَنْ
- Hamza has tashdeed (double consonants), written with rule: Hamza has haraka and letter after it has haraka too.
تَرَأَّسَ, تَرَؤُّسًا, مُتَرَئِّسٌ
- If hamza meet mad and tashdeed, then hamza is removed, only written mad and tashdeed.
- If hamza meet tashdeed only, then written bothly.
- About Additonal Letter
2.1. About Hamzah Washl
Five conditions of hamza washl:
- Hamza washl spoken but hasn’t haraka in alif lam ta’reef (ال)and there are ten words here:
ابن, ابنة, اسم, امرأة, است, اثنان, اثنتان, ايمن, امرؤ, ابنم
- Hamza washl is added in verb and noun (masdar) .
- Added with Alif in certain words that related to amount of hundred.
c.1. One hundred.
c.2. Removed in two hundred.
c.3. Three hundred until nine hundred.
ثَلٰثُمِائَةٍ / ثَلَاثُمِائَةٍ, أَرْبَعُمِائَةٍ, خَمْسُمِائَةٍ, سِتُّمِائَةٍ, سَبْعُمِائَةٍ, ثَمٰنُمِائَةٍ / ثَمَانُمِائَةٍ, تِسْعُمِائَةٍ
c.4. Not added in plural.
c.5. Not added in nesba.
- Added in the end of word after waw dameer in past verb, instruction verb, and present verb that removed Noon letter cause of mansoob or majzoom. (Mansoob: situation in verb that obligate fatha sign. Majzoom: situation in verb that obligate sukoon sign)
كَتَبُوْا, اُكْتُبُوْا, أَنْ تَكْتُبُوْا, لَمْ يَكْتُبُوْا
- Sometimes hamza washl added in Arabic poetry that lays in the end of sentences in order to Qofeya (beautifulness of scale in Arabic poetry)
2.2. About Letter Waw
Letter Waw added in the middle or the end of word, but not read in three condition:
- Waw added in the middle of these words:
a.1. In noun of index.
أُولَاءِ , أُولَى
a.2. In word that means owner.
أُولُوْ , أُولِيْ
a.3. In word that means female owner.
- Waw added in the end of name Amroo
- Waw added and spoken after letter Mim that indicating plural.
وَ إِنْ هُمُو , اِتَّخَذَتْكُمُو
- About Removed Letter in Word
3.1. Removed of Hamza Washl
Removed of Hamza washl (ا) in four conditions:
- Hamza washl in alif lam (ا ل)
a.1. When hamza for asking enter that word (أ) (hamza for asking that means what)
آلعِلْمُ أَفْضَلُ أَمِ المَالُ؟
a.2. When letter Lam enter that word (ل)
- Hamza washl in noun (masdar) and past verb, is removed in writing and speaking if was begun by Hamza for asking (that means what).
أَسْتَغْفَرْتَ لَهُمْ ؟ / أَضْطِرَارًا فَعَلْتَ كَذَا أَمْ اِخْتِيَارًا؟
- Hamza washl in word ism (that means name) (اسم) is begun by hamza for asking.
أَسْمُكَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَمْ أَحْمَدُ؟
- Hamza washl in word ibn (that means child) (ابن) in writing and speaking when three conditions:
d.1. When begun by hamza for asking
أَبْنُ عَمِّكَ طَبِيْبٌ؟
d.2. When bedun by Ya for calling
d.3. When word ibn (ابن) is begun by two alam that first alam isn’t tanween ending, and both alam are connected (ain’t separated by anything).
3.2. Removed of Alif Layeena in the Middle of Word
Removed alif layeena in the middle of word in many conditions:
- After hamza is letter alif, written above sign of mad (long vowel).
الآنَ, آمَنَ, آثَرَ
- Both words (رحمان, حارث) if begun by alif lam ta’reef.
- The word (لٰكِنْ)
- The word (أُولَاءِ) if letter after it is letter Kaf (ك)
- The word (إِلٰهٌ / الإِلٰهُ)
- The word (سماء) if letter after it alif and ta.
- The word (ثلاث)when meet word (المائة)
- The words of famous alam
اِسْحٰقُ, هٰرُوْنُ, اِسْمٰعِيْلُ, اِبْرٰهِيْمُ
- The word Haa (ها) that means for notice, when meet noun of index, ain’t begun by letter ta’ and letter after it ain’t letter kaf (ك)
هٰذَا, هٰذِهِ, هٰؤُلاَءِ, هٰكَذَا
- Alif Layeena in word Dza (ذا) when meet with letter Lam that has haraka kasra. (لِ)
ذٰلِكَ, ذٰلِكُمَا, ذٰلِكُمْ, ذٰلِكُنَّ
- Alif Layeena in word Ana (أنا) when begun by letter Ha’ for notice (هٰ) and letter Dzal for index (ذا)
- Alif Layeena in word Yaa (يا) one of letter for calling, in two conditions:
l.1. When Alif Layeena meet with word
يٰأَيُّهَا المَرْءُ المُؤَدَّبُ
l.2. When ALif Layeena meets with word ahlon (أَهْلٌ)
3.3. Removed of Letter Waw (و)
Sometimes two letter Waw meet in one word, then removed one of both, sometimes written bothly. Removed of letter Waw in a word in three conditions:
- Removed of Waw in these words:
- Removed one Waw (from two letter Waw) or written bothly at same times.
- Written bothly at same times in word (ذوو) when Marfoo that it means owner.
ذَوُوْ قَلَمِ الرَّصَاصِ
- Written bothly in every word that has middle origin letter is waw in plural manly safely (jama mozakar saleem)
الرَّاوُوْنَ, الغَاوُوْنَ, النَّاوُوْنَ
- About Quran Writing
Quran is written as same as at Otsman Moshaf, ain’t changed at all. In the other word, it ain’t follow Emla rules.
Seorang pengamat sosial yang berusaha melihat sisi lain dari setiap hal. Mencoba meracik, meramu, dan menemukan sesuatu yang baru. Penulis buku: Ketika Huruf V Digugat (2018)