An Overview of Descriptive Text

Education, Umum
Regarding to teaching writing at Junior High School levels, there are several text types that have to be taught to the students namely procedure, descriptive, recount, narrative, and report (BNSP, 2006: 124).  According to Zemach and Rumisek (2005: 25) a descriptive text explains how someone or something looks or feel. Martin (1989) in Mali-Jali (2007: 81) states that a descriptive writing describes characteristics of a particular individual, thing or place. In line with that statement, Knapp and Watkins (2005), Derewianka (2003), and Mun, et al (2008) define a descriptive text as a kind of text which purpose is to describe a particular person, place, or thing in detail. In addition, Hyland (2003: 20) argues that the purpose of descriptive text is to give an account of imagined or factual events…
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CONSTRUCTING GOOD MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST ITEMS

Education, Umum
Introduction   The multiple-choice  item is one of the most well known kinds of test used in educational assessment. Many people say that they like to use multiple choice item because it is practical. However, to construct good multiple choice item is not easy like when it is scored. There are four terms that typically found in a multiple choice item: a stem - the text of the question; options - the choices provided after the stem; the key: the correct answer in the list of options; distractors: the incorrect answers in the list of options. It is common knowledge that the correct answers should be distributed evenly among the alternative positions of multiple choice items, but there are many other important guidelines for writing good items. For example, Burton…
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Doa Agar Terbebas Dari Hutang dan Kegelisahan

Umum
Di dalam kitab Al Adzkar An Nawawi ada sebuah kisah yang menarik bersumber dari sebuah hadits dari sahabat Said al-Khudri yang diriwayatkan oleh Imam Abu Daud. Suatu ketika, Rasulullah menjumpai seorang laki-laki dari sahabat Anshar yang sedang duduk-duduk di masjid. Sahabat Anshar ini biasa dipanggil dengan sebutan ‘Abu Umamah. Melihat hal itu, Rasulullah kemudian bertanya: يَا أَبَا أُمَامَةَ مَا لِي أَرَاكَ جَالِسًا فِي الْمَسْجِدِ فِي غَيْرِ وَقْتِ الصَّلَاةِ ؟ “Wahai Abu Umamah, kenapa kamu duduk-duduk di masjid padahal ini bukan waktu shalat?” Abu Umamah menjawab: هُمُومٌ لَزِمَتْنِي، وَدُيُونٌ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ “Saya sedang gundah dan terlilit hutang ya Rasulullah! Kemudian Rasulullah balik bertanya: أَفَلَا أُعَلِّمُكَ كَلَامًا إِذَا أَنْتَ قُلْتَهُ أَذْهَبَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ هَمَّكَ، وَقَضَى عَنْكَ دَيْنَكَ ؟ “Maukah engkau aku ajarkan sebuah doa yang apabila kamu membacanya, maka Allah…
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Speech Act in Feminine Point of View

Education, Umum
Introduction The principal use of language is to state facts, to describe how things are in the world, to present information which, generally, is either true or false (Kreidler, 1998). People often use a language to signal their membership of particular groups. Social status, gender, age, ethnicity and the kinds of social networks people belong to turn out to be important dimensions of identity in many communities. It means that no two people speak exactly the same, including man and woman. This paper will discuss more about speech acts that is often used by women. 2. What makes women’s language different? It is often claimed by the society that women’s language different from men’s. Some linguists believe that the differences are caused by their position in the society. Lakoff (in…
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Classroom Implication of Multiple Intelligences

Classroom Implication of Multiple Intelligences

Education, Umum
A. The Multiple Intelligence Theory The Multiple Intelligence Theory (MI) was developed by Howard Gardner, Harvard Graduate Professor in the School of Education, in 1983. MI refers to a learner-based philosophy that characterizes human intelligence as having multiple dimensions that must be acknowledge and developed in education (Richards and Rodgers, 2006: 115). MI theory challenges traditional, narrower views of intelligence, which is usually based on an IQ test, namely Stanford-Binet. The traditional theory of intelligence states that an individual's intelligence is a fixed entity throughout someone’s lifetime and that intelligence can be measured through an individual's logical and language abilities. In fact, the brain has not only logic and language ability, but also other important kinds of intelligence. Therefore, Gardner concludes that intelligence encompasses the ability to create and solve…
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PICTURE DESCRIPTION TASK (PIDETA) METHOD

PICTURE DESCRIPTION TASK (PIDETA) METHOD

Education, Umum
Background This method is actually derived from Task-Based learning, but it focuses only with the use of Picture Description. As we know that Task-based learning has become orthodoxy in contemporary EFL teaching and in recent years has been exported to many countries around the world. However there is little practical discussion of how tasks are actually implemented in school settings, particularly where conditions may be less than ideal, in terms of one or more of the following conditions: Large class sizes Cramped classroom Lack of appropriate resources Teachers not trained in task-based methodologies Teachers with limited language proficiency Traditional examination-based syllabi. Therefore, to make task-based easy to be applied, Pideta focuses only with the use of picture as a task. Pictures as parts of visual aids are commonly used for…
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USING PORTFOLIO TO ASSESS YOUNG LEARNERS PERFORMANCE

USING PORTFOLIO TO ASSESS YOUNG LEARNERS PERFORMANCE

Education, Umum
Introduction Traditional forms of testing and assessment have been criticized for their failure to truly assess young learners. Traditional forms of assessment do not represent the activities that children usually perform in the classroom. Children have an amazing ability to absorb the language through play and other activities which they find enjoyable (Scott and Ytreberg, 1990). Therefore, if the children are assessed using the traditional form of assessment, the result will not reflect the students performance. In addition, traditional forms of assessment only focus more on product rather than the process. For example, objective paper and pencil tests usually focus on whether children get the right answers, instead of the process of how they arrive at their responses (Fischer and King, 1995). Scott and Ytreberg (1990: 7) stated that formal…
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Teaching Speaking to Young Learners through Storytelling

Teaching Speaking to Young Learners through Storytelling

Education, Umum
Story is one of things that make people different from other creatures. People like to use story to tell about real events, history, and family. Story also can be used to teach young learners when they learn a language. Eades (2006: 11) says that stories can be an invaluable tool for developing speaking and listening skills and as a stimulus for discussion or for philosophy and thinking skills. In line with that statement, Garvie (1990) as quoted by Maurao (2009) describes story as a vehicle for all that is language learning, which includes the cognitive and affective factors. Cameron (2001: 160) says that storytelling is an oral activity, and stories have the shape they do because they are designed to be listened to and, in many situations, participated in. Eades…
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The Teaching of Writing in Junior High Schools in Indonesia

The Teaching of Writing in Junior High Schools in Indonesia

Education, Umum
Based on the basic competency for junior high school, it is said that language teaching in junior high school is targeted for the students to be able to communicate orally and written well (Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Indonesia: 2017). The goal of teaching writing at Junior High School level is developing students’ competence in expressing for communication with people surround them. The teaching of writing in this level also aims at developing students’ competence in various text types including descriptive, recount, narrative, procedure, and factual report (Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Indonesia: 2017). The distribution of the various text types taught at Junior High Schools level in Indonesia can be seen in Table 1.   Grade Text Types VII Functional Texts; descriptive texts VIII Functional Texts; descriptive texts IX Functional Texts;…
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